Electrophile, in organic chemistry, is an ion or molecule that accepts or is constantly on the lookout for an electron pair to create a fresh covalent bond and fill up its valence shell (outermost electron shell). This desire to fill up the valence shell is to attain chemical stability. This lack of valence electrons gives the electrophile a partial or complete positive charge, which makes the molecule attracted to other molecules’ electron-rich areas.
The molecule that doesn’t mind lending its electrons to form the bond with an electrophile is called a nucleophile. A nucleophile has a negative or partial negative charge due to its higher electron presence, indicating it has electrons and an inclination to share electrons.
An electrophile is commonly referred to as “electron poor” and a nucleophile is called “electron rich”. Carbon dioxide, aluminium chloride, etc. are electrophiles. Understanding electrons’ positioning in an ion or molecule and learning how they flow is important because an atom’s electron richness or poorness helps ascertain whether it’s an electrophile or nucleophile, which helps determine the atom’s role or response in a chemical reaction. In fact, both electrophiles and nucleophiles form the base for most chemical reactions.