A non-polar covalent bond is a type of covalent bond in which the electronegativity traits of both bonding atoms are the same. In other words, the atoms in a non-polar covalent bond share equal number of electrons with each other. This is the opposite of polar covalent bonds in which the electronegativity of one atom is higher than the other atom.
Invariably, the bonding atoms belong to the same element. The electronegativity need not be perfectly equal to term the chemical relationship as non-polar. A non-polar bond is a strong bond and needs substantial amount of energy for it to come apart.
Every element has an electronegativity number assigned to it on the periodic table, based on the nucleus’ keenness to attract electrons. Number 4 represents high electronegativity and 0 denotes low negativity or high electropositivity. If the electronegativity difference between the atoms lies in the 0.4 and 1.7 range, the bond is termed non-polar.